Friday, November 22, 2013

AWR Wait Events: Free Buffer Waits vs. Buffer Busy Waits

To diagnose Oracle performance problems, you can use Automatic Workload Repository (AWR)[1] to collect, process, and maintain performance statistics for problem detection. This data is both in memory and stored in the database. The gathered data can be displayed in both reports and views.

In this article, we will discuss the following topics:
  • Top 5 Timed Foreground Events[2]
  • Free buffer Waits vs. Buffer Busy Waits[3]

Top 5 Timed Foreground Events

The Top 5 Timed Foreground Events section is where you can usually spot the problem, by showing you why the sessions are “waiting.” Make sure to analyze the total waits and average waits (ms) separately, in order to determine if the waits are significant. 

For a given workload, this list of events should be relatively stable; you should investigate any significant variation. You will generally see DB CPU at the top of the list. However, CPU usage is not necessarily an indication of a healthy system, as the application may be CPU-bound. The most common wait events are:
  • db file sequential read
  • db file scattered read
  • db file parallel read
  • log file sync

In a nicely performing database, you should see CPU and I/O as the top wait events. If any wait events from the Concurrency wait class or Configuration wait class,[7] investigate those waits further.  For example, in one of the AWR reports, we have found:

EventWaitsTime(s)Avg wait (ms)% DB timeWait Class
free buffer waits1,336,44420,8801655.33Configuration
db file sequential read11,443,82012,942134.30User I/O
DB CPU1,5284.05
undo segment extension5,0315471091.45Configuration
buffer busy waits106847950.22Concurrency

Free Buffer Waits

The Free Buffer Waits event indicates that your session is waiting for a buffer to become empty.  For instance, the database writer is copying the current contents to disc and your session has to wait for this to complete before you can empty the buffer and put something else in it.

Possible Causes and Solutions:
  • DB_BUFFER_CACHE may need to be tuned[4]
    • If the cache hit ratio is low and your application is tuned to avoid performing full table scans, consider increasing the size of the buffer cache.
      • If it is possible to allocate the extra memory required to the buffer cache without causing the system to page, then allocate extra memory.
      • To increase the amount of memory allocated to the buffer cache, increase the value of the DB_CACHE_SIZE initialization parameter.
  • If all your SQL is tuned, free buffer waits could also indicate that:
    • Unselective SQL is causing data to flood the buffer cache with index blocks, leaving none for this particular statement that is waiting for the system to process. 
    • This normally indicates that there is a substantial amount of DML (insert/update/delete) being done and that the Database Writer (DBWR) is not writing quickly enough; the buffer cache could be full of multiple versions of the same buffer, causing great inefficiency. 
    • The solutions include, but not limited to:
      • Avoid performing full table scans
      • Accelerating incremental checkpointing, using more DBWR processes, increasing the size of buffer cache, or increasing the number of physical disks.
  • Investigate if this is an I/O problem

Buffer Busy Waits

The Buffer Busy Waits event indicates that an Oracle session needs to access a block in the buffer cache,
but cannot because the buffer copy of the data block is locked. Buffer busy waits should not be greater than 1 percent.  This buffer busy wait condition can happen for either of the following reasons:
  • The block is being read into the buffer by another session, so the waiting session must wait for the block read to complete. 
  • Another session has the buffer block locked in a mode that is incompatible with the waiting session's request.

Possible Causes and Solutions:[2,3,5]
  • Check the Buffer Wait Statistics section (see next section) to find out if the wait is on:
    • segment header
      • Increase the freelist groups or increase the pctused to pctfree gap
    • file header block
      • If you are hitting file header block contention (Reason Code 13) on the temp files, increase the number of header blocks by adding more tempfiles.[5]
    • undo header
      • Add rollback segments
    • undo block
      • Reduce the data density on the table driving this consistent read or increase the DB_CACHE_SIZE. 
    • data block
      • Move data to another block to avoid this hot block, increase the freelists on the table, or use Locally Managed Tablespaces (LMTs). 
      • Use a smaller block size: fewer records fall within a single block in this case, so it's not as "hot." 
    • index block
      • Rebuild the index, partition the index, or use a reverse key index. 
  • When a DML (insert/update/ delete) occurs, Oracle Database writes information into the block, including all users who are "interested" in the state of the block (Interested Transaction List, ITL). 
    • To decrease waits in this area, you can:
      • Increase the initrans, which will create the space in the block to allow multiple ITL slots. 
      • Increase the pctfree on the table where this block exists (this writes the ITL information up to the number specified by maxtrans, when there are not enough slots built with the initrans that is specified).
  • Other tunings
    • Database writer (DBWR) contention tuning
    • Implementing Automatic Segment Storage Management (ASSM, a.k.a bitmap freelists)

Buffer Wait Statistics

Here is the Buffer Wait Statistics section from our AWR snapshot:
  • ordered by wait time desc, waits desc
ClassWaitsTotal Wait Time (s)Avg Time (ms)
undo header827752909
file header block4540896
data block1107

SQL ordered by Elapsed Time

Finally, from the SQL Ordered by Elapsed Time section, it seems to indicate that a DML (i.e., delete) operation poorly performed.  This has given us another clue to investigate our performance issue.  From the SQL Id, you should be able to find out more details of the interested SQL in your AWR snapshot.

Elapsed Time (s) CPU Time (s) Executions Elap per Exec (s) % Total DB Time SQL Id SQL Module SQL Text
35,931 1,457 1,000 35.93 95.22 83uuf84dqpbaq   delete /*+ INDEX (a EQ$ATTR_VA...
35,925 1,479 0 95.20 6vyng4f5vktyb   DECLARE job BINARY_INTEGER := ...


  1. Overview of the Automatic Workload Repository
  2. AWR Top 5 Timed Events - Top 10
  3. What is the difference between buffer busy waits and free buffer waits
  4. Tuning the Database Buffer Cache
  5. Resolving file header contention on tempfiles
  6. Oracle® Database Performance Tuning Guide 10g Release 2 (10.2)
  7. Classes of Wait Events
    • Configuration: Waits caused by inadequate configuration of database or instance resources (for example, undersized log file sizes, shared pool size)
    • Concurrency: Waits for internal database resources (for example, latches)
  8. Oracle® Database Reference 10g Release 2 (10.2)
  9. More on Interested Transaction Lists
  10. Oracle automatic segment space management:  ASSM internal structures

Saturday, November 16, 2013

Healthy Pursuits Are like Traveling

The American travel writer Paul Theroux once wrote: "Tourists don't know where they've been, travelers don't know where they're going."

Healthy pursuits are like traveling. We know there is a wonderland called wellness. But, there are no fixed routes to reach there. The pursuits need effort and determination. We cannot act like tourists who don't know where they've been. We must take notes of warning signs sent by our bodies.

On the journey to wellness, there are many dangers to be avoided; there are many footsteps to be taken; unfortunately, there are no shortcuts.

Travelers walking in the night follow North Star. Healthy pursuits work similarly. We know our goal; we know the signposts; we know the dangers on the road; we can adjust pace if we are tired; we can change travel plans due to the weather. But, We walk steadily and persistently. With my companionship, hopefully, your journey will be made easier.

May all be fed. May all be healed. May all be loved.

Travel and Health

Be Healthy!

Tuesday, November 12, 2013

How to Restart OATS Services

This article is one of the Oracle Application Test Suite (OATS)[1] series published on Xml and More, which includes the following:
In this article, we will show how to restart OATS services on the Linux system. The Linux system referenced here is Oracle Linux:[2]

$ cat /etc/*-release

Enterprise Linux Enterprise Linux Server release 5.8 (Carthage)
Oracle Linux Server release 5.8
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 5.8 (Tikanga)


Red Hat (i.e., RHEL 5) includes the service utility to help you manage your start up scripts and save you a lot of typing. This is handy when you're managing the already existing services (e.g., OATS services). /sbin/service is just a shell script (see Appendix) that comes as part of Red Hat's initscripts package.[4]

OATS Services

There are three OATS services running on Linux.[5] To restart them, you use the following commands:

# /sbin/service OracleATSAgent [start|stop]
# /sbin/service OracleATSServer [start|stop]
# /sbin/service OracleATSHelper [start|stop]

There is also a command option (i.e., "status") that allows you to check their current status:

#/sbin/service OracleATSHelper status
OATS Helper Service is running

Note that you need to be the superuser to run the above commands. Also, if you install OATS database on the same server, you need to start your DB first before you restart OATS services.


cat /sbin/service

. /etc/init.d/functions

VERSION="`basename $0` ver. 0.91"
USAGE="Usage: `basename $0` < option > | --status-all | \
[ service_name [ command | --full-restart ] ]"

if [ $# -eq 0 ]; then
   echo "${USAGE}" >&2
   exit 1

cd /
while [ $# -gt 0 ]; do
  case "${1}" in
    --help | -h | --h* )
       echo "${USAGE}" >&2
       exit 0
    --version | -V )
       echo "${VERSION}" >&2
       exit 0
       if [ -z "${SERVICE}" -a $# -eq 1 -a "${1}" = "--status-all" ]; then
          cd ${SERVICEDIR}
          for SERVICE in * ; do
            case "${SERVICE}" in
              functions | halt | killall | single| linuxconf| kudzu)
                if ! is_ignored_file "${SERVICE}" \
                    && [ -x "${SERVICEDIR}/${SERVICE}" ]; then
                  env -i LANG="$LANG" PATH="$PATH" TERM="$TERM" "${SERVICEDIR}/${SERVICE}" status
          exit 0
       elif [ $# -eq 2 -a "${2}" = "--full-restart" ]; then
          if [ -x "${SERVICEDIR}/${SERVICE}" ]; then
            env -i LANG="$LANG" PATH="$PATH" TERM="$TERM" "${SERVICEDIR}/${SERVICE}" stop
            env -i LANG="$LANG" PATH="$PATH" TERM="$TERM" "${SERVICEDIR}/${SERVICE}" start
            exit $?
       elif [ -z "${SERVICE}" ]; then
         OPTIONS="${OPTIONS} ${1}"

if [ -x "${SERVICEDIR}/${SERVICE}" ]; then
   echo $"${SERVICE}: unrecognized service" >&2
   exit 1


  1. Oracle Application Testing Suite
  2. Oracle Linux
    • Oracle Linux, formerly known as Oracle Enterprise Linux, is a Linux distribution based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), repackaged and freely distributed by Oracle, available under the GNU General Public License (GPL) since late 2006
  3. How To Install Services on Linux
  4. Understanding your (Red Hat Enterprise Linux) daemons
  5. OpenScript Functional Testing Introduction
    • Services installed by ATS Setup on Linux:
      • Oracle ATS Agent: Remote Agent Service used for Load testing
      • Oracle ATS Helper: OpenScript Helper Service.
      • Oracle ATS Server: Oracle Load Testing & Oracle Test Manager Console. (Weblogic server)
  6. OATS: Tie All Processes Together — from OpenScript to Scenario (Xml and More)

Thursday, November 7, 2013

Java Throwable: ClassNotFoundException vs. NoClassDefFoundError

Many times we have confused ourselves with the following two Java Throwable messages:

Although both of them are related to Java Classpath,[7] they are different.[1] In a nutshell, they differ in this way:
  • ClassNotFoundException
    • Thrown when an application tries to load a class at run-time and name was provided during runtime not at compile time
  • NoClassDefFoundError[11,12]
    • When JVM or a ClassLoader instance is not able to find a particular class at runtime which was available during compile time


ClassNotFoundException is thrown when an application tries to load in a class through its string name using:
  • The forName method in class Class.
  • The findSystemClass method in class ClassLoader .
  • The loadClass method in class ClassLoader.
but no definition for the class with the specified name could be found. See How-To section below for solutions.


The searched-for class definition existed when the currently executing class was compiled, but the definition can no longer be found. One way to debug NoClassDefFoundError is going back to the design-time environment. Using an IDE, you might be able to find where the class is coming from at compile time. Then use that as a clue to find why that class cannot be found at runtime. See How-To section for more details.

What Could Go Wrong?

Classpath[7] in Java is path to directory or list of directory which is used by ClassLoaders[3] to find and load class in Java program. If a class cannot be found at runtime, it may be due to:
  • Classloaders are not set up correctly[3]
  • Class is corrupted
    • Java compiler is not backwards compatible. For example, bytecode generated with JDK 7 won't run in Java 1.6 JVM.[2]
  • Jar file could be renamed in the runtime environment
  • Your startup script may have overridden Classpath environment variable
  • You might be running your program using jar command and class was not defined in manifest file's ClassPath attribute.

How to Resolve it?

The application that triggered the request to load a class receives a ClassNotFoundException or NoClassDefFoundError if neither the classloader nor any of its ancestors can locate the class.[3] In that case, you can take the following actions:
  • You can use System.getproperty("java.class.path") to get the class path used by your Java application at runtime.[4]
  • Try to run with -classpath option using the classpath you think would work: if it works, then it's a sign that some one is overriding java classpath.
  • Check the permission of your jar files.  Your application may not be able to access them.
  • Enable class loading traces at JVM level. For example, you can specify -verbose:class for both JRockit and HotSpot.[5]
  • If your application is deployed in WebLogic server, read [3] and enable classloader debugging. 
    •  For example, you may want to set:
      • -Dweblogic.utils.classloaders.GenericClassLoader.Verbose=true 
      • -Dweblogic.utils.classloaders.ChangeAwareClassLoader.Verbose=true
    • You can also use Classloader Analysis Tool (http://localhost:port/wls-cat/) which is deployed by default on admin servers of domains in development mode.[6]
    • If your application runs in one environment and not in another,
      • Try adding the CLASSPATH explicitly pointing to your jars in setDomainEnv script 
      • You can also set "EXT_PRE_CLASSPATH=...." or "EXT_POST_CLASSPATH=..." where "..." are your jar files. The will pick up these and add to CLASSPATH. The above environment variables can be set when you log on or somewhere at the top of


  1. 3 ways to solve java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError in Java J2EE
  2. Is JDK “upward” or “backward” compatible?
  3. WebLogic's Classloading Framework (Xml and More)
  4. System Properties
  5. -verbose:class Option
  6. Using the new WebLogic Classloader Analysis Tool (CAT)
    • Note that I'm not sure if this is still available in newer WLS releases.
  7. How to Set Classpath for Java on Windows Unix and Linux
    • Main difference between PATH and CLASSPATH is that former is used to locate Java commands while later is used to locate Java class files.
  8. java.lang.UnsatisfiedLinkError: Setting Environment Variable (Xml and More)
  9. Using the Classloader Analysis Tool (CAT)
  10. WebLogic Server (WLS) Support Pattern: Investigating Different Classloading Issues (Doc ID 1572862.1)
  11. If you use JPA 2.1 with WLS 12.1.1 or 12.1.2, then you may see this (because JPA 2.1 only supported starting in 12.1.3):
    • java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: javax/persistence/StoredProcedureQuery
  12. java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: sun/io/CharacterEncoding (Xml and More)

Wednesday, November 6, 2013

ORA-01691: unable to extend lob segment

This article is one of the Oracle Application Test Suite (OATS)[1] series published on Xml and More, which includes the following:
Today, I have seen the following message:
ORA-1691: unable to extend lobsegment OLT.SYS_LOB0000079598C00002$ by 128 in tablespace USERS
from alert/log.xml, which was reported by the Oracle DB of OATS.[1]

In this article, we will show:
  1. How to investigate
  2. How to provide the solution


If you see "ORA-01691" error, normally this means that the tablespace is full or that there is not an extent (aka chunk) available that fits the size needed.[2]

To investigate further, you can query the DB with the following SQL commands:[2]

SQL> set long 100000
SQL> select dbms_metadata.get_ddl('TABLESPACE','USERS') from dual;


  '/scratch/aime1/app/oracle11.' SIZE 5242880

  '/scratch/aime1/app/oracle11.' RESIZE 34359

When I checked the used% of tablespace USERS, it showed that it's almost 100% full. So, the error is due to the tablespace being full.

SQL>  select * from dba_tablespace_usage_metrics order by used_percent desc;

------------------------------ ---------- --------------- ------------
USERS                             4194128         4194302   99.9958515

The Solution

You can find out what schema (or user) uses tablespace USERS by issuing the following SQL command:

SQL> select owner, table_name,tablespace_name from dba_tables where tablespace_name='USERS';

From the output, we know tablespace USERS is shared by the following users:
In our environment, we have used OLT to run load tests. For OLT, typically it is the session data that is taking most of the space in the DB. As an immediate workaround, you can try removing sessions from OLT Controller UI. However, it may run very slowly because tablespace USERS has already run out of space. To facilitate the session-removing task from OLT Controller UI, I have added 100MB to the tablespace USERS by giving it a second datafile:

SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE users ADD DATAFILE '/scratch/aime1/app/oracle11.' size 100m;

Tablespace altered.

By adding some space to the tablespace, it helped smooth out the task of session removing. Admittedly, it was still a slow process. But, the solution worked.


  1. Oracle Application Testing Suite
  2. ORA-01691: unable to extend lob segment (OTN)
  3. Administering Tablespaces
  4. SQL Purge command
  5. Folllow @OracleAskTom
  6. Oracle Load Testing Overview
  7. Oracle Test Manager Overview

Tuesday, November 5, 2013

WebLogic Server Cluster Messaging Protocols—Unicast vs. Multicast

WebLogic Server clusters form a loosely-federated group of managed servers that provide a model for applications to leverage for achieving scalability, load balancing, and failover.[1]

To support the above-said functionality, the cluster uses a messaging model for members of the cluster to exchange the information required to keep the cluster in sync.  WebLogic Server supports two cluster messaging protocols:[1,2]
  • Multicast – This protocol, which relies on UDP Multicast, has been around since WebLogic Server introduced clustering back in WebLogic Server version 4.0.
  • Unicast – This protocol, which relies on point-to-point TCP/IP sockets, was added in WebLogic Server 10.0.
In this article, we will look at an example cluster (i.e, CustomerCluster) which is composed of two cluster members:
  • CustomerServer_1
  • CustomerServer_2
Note that, in our configuration, we have both servers installed on the same machine.  But, the best practice is to install them on different machines in case that one of them crashes.


CustomerCluster mentioned here is configured in the CRM Domain of CRM Fusion Application.  There are two members in the cluster.  To sync up each other, unicast cluster messaging mode was chosen as shown below:

It is important to note that although unicast is the default protocol, Oracle fully supports both protocols equally. As stated in [1], parts of the WLS documentation suggest or imply that multicast is only supported for backwards compatibility (see [4]). This suggestion or implication is incorrect.  For example, if you are using WebLogic Server 12c, the choice of protocols should not be influenced by this wording in the WLS documentation. Read [1] for a good comparison for clusters using either unicast or multicast protocols.

Group Leader Strategy

Unicast protocol relies on point-to-point TCP/IP sockets.  So, WebLogic Server’s unicast implementation uses a group leader strategy to limit the growth in the number of sockets required as the cluster size grows.  The cluster is split into one or more groups; each group has a group leader.  Group members communicate with the group leader; group leaders also communicate with other group leaders in the cluster. If a group leader dies, the group elects another group leader.  In the example CustomerCluster, CustomerServer_1 is the group leader (see Figure).

Final Words

When configuring WebLogic Server clusters for unicast communications, if the servers are running on different machines, you must explicitly specify their listen addresses or DNS names.

To find out more information, read the following articles:


  1. WebLogic Server Cluster Messaging Protocols
  2. WebLogic Server
    Version: is used in the demonstration of this article.
  3. Interview Question - How to persist session across Weblogic?
  4. Communications In a Cluster

Monday, November 4, 2013

Java EE and GlassFish Server Roadmap Update

On 11/04/2013, Oracle has just announced a roadmap update on Java EE and GlassFish.  The major changes include, but not limited to:
  • Oracle will no longer release future major releases of Oracle GlassFish Server with commercial support – specifically Oracle GlassFish Server 4.x with commercial Java EE 7 support will not be released.
  • Commercial Java EE 7 support will be provided from WebLogic Server.
  • Oracle GlassFish Server will not be releasing a 4.x commercial version

Sunday, November 3, 2013

Career, Work, and Health (7)

Flu season is coming. Some experts advise not to take flu vaccines while some, especially drug companies, are promoting flu vaccines in earnest.

Based on personal research, I have posted two articles:
Similar to provide cares for your computer bugs, I hope to provide some guidance for your health issues too. Since 2005, I have read many books (most of them written by physicians) and research articles. The results are approximately one hundred health-related articles which were posted on two web sites:
Wish your computer and health are both in excellent conditions! As the author of best-sellers John Robbins said in his book:
"May all be fed. May all be healed. May all be loved."

Saturday, November 2, 2013

How to Create Load Testing Scripts Using OpenScript

This article is one of the Oracle Application Test Suite (OATS)[1] series published on Xml and More, which includes the following:

In this article, we will show:
  • How to create load testing scripts using OpenScript[2]

Introduction to OpenScript

Application Testing Suite (OATS) is comprised of several tightly integrated products.[1] The script designer —OpenScript—only runs on Windows, but all the runtime components are available for both Linux and Windows. OpenScript is a scripting platform for creating automated test scripts in Java.

You can use OpenScript to create scripts for different testings. For example, OATS supports
  • Functional Testing
  • Load Testing
In this article, we will show you how to create load testing scripts in OpenScript.

The Platform

Scripting platform is based upon the Eclipse open source development environment. Initial OpenScript product provides access to a limited set of the Eclipse development environment.

The workbench is the base layer of software and code that provide the foundation on which the OpenScript Modules and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) operate. Each Workbench window contains one or more perspectives. OpenScript Workbench provides the following perspectives:
  • Tester perspective
  • Developer perspective
  • Reset perspective
Workspaces are created in Oracle OpenScript. Workspaces store project-related script files and Results Log files. You can use them to organize your various testing projects. Three levels of management are provided:
  • Scripts (lowest)
  • Folders
  • Repositories (highest)
You can download OATS from [3]. The version used in this demonstration is
Version: Build 376

Cheat Sheet

Like every recording task, you need to rehearse and make sure all glitches are resolved before the final recording. If you have decided the click path, prepare a cheat sheet like below:

[1] Bring_up_FUSE_URL
[2] Login_SALESREPUSER00001_Welcome1
[3] Click_the_Opportunities_Card
[4] Select_Quarter_2_2013
[5] Drilldown_on_Pinnacle_Server
[6] Click_on_Sales_Account_Picker
[7] Search_for_CUSTOMER_101328336
[8] Click_Cancel
[9] Click_Add_Revenue_Item
[10] Select_Type_Item
[11] Click_Product_LOV_and_Search
[12] Search_for_Elite_Pro_DG_452
[13] Select_Product_and_click_Ok
[14] Click_Cancel
[15] Logout

The numbering of step is for human readers and can help the recording. Each row on the list corresponds to a click in your click path and will become the title of step group in OpenScript recording.

OpenScript Preferences

Before recording, there are some preferences you want to set. To set them, you click on View and then OpenScript Preferences. For example, we would like to control the grouping, naming and numbering of step groups by ourselves (see "Cheat Sheet"). So, set your "ADF Load" preferences as below:

Creating a New Project

In this demonstration, we will create an open script for load testing (File > New...). Our web application is CRM FUSE. So, we have selected "Oracle Fusion/ADF" wizard from the New Project (see above).
  • Oracle Fusion/ADF
    • This option lets you create a new script for load testing of Oracle Application Development Framework (ADF)-based applications and other applications that utilize HTTP and ADF protocols at the protocol level.

At the next step, you are asked to provide a Script Name. So, we set them as follows:
  • Create script as a Function Library (unchecked)
  • Script Name: FUSE_Saleopty_oct07_wrk
Finally click Finish to create a new script. The resulting script will contain the Initialize, Run, and Finish nodes. The Run node will contain recorded HTTP protocol navigations based upon the defined Step Group preferences and the navigations and ADF protocol for actions performed during recording. You can edit the script tree or Java code to customize the script.[4]

In the following sections, we will demonstrate how to create:
  • First step group
  • Remaining step groups

Creating First Step Group

Creating the first step group is a bit different from the rest. So, we describe it separately. Note that we have NOT clicked on the record button yet.

Before we click on the record button (i.e., red circle), create the first message group as shown below:
Open your notepad and copy the first row into the title field as shown below. Then click OK.

Note that we have chosen "No delay" for the first step. But, for other steps, we will specify "Delay 44 secs."

Start Recording

Now click the record button. Your chosen browser (for our demonstration, it's Firefox) will be brought up. Copy your URL:
into the address field and hit Enter. This finishes the recording of the first step group.

Next repeat the following subtasks for the remaining groups until it finishes:
  1. Creating a new step group in OpenScript
    • Right select previous Step Group to bring up context menu and select New > Step Group
  2. Copying the next row of click path from Notepad
  3. Clicking next step in your Browser

Finally, don't forget to stop the recorder.

Exporting Script

If your runtime environment is Linux, you need to export script created in OpenScript as follows:
File > Export Script...

For example, a new zip file was created in our default repository:
You can then copy it to your Linux box:
scp aime1@mylinuxserver:/scratch/aime1/work


  1. Oracle Application Testing Suite
  2. OpenScript for Load Testing Script Troubleshooting (Tutorial)
    • Version: Build 376 was used in this article.
    • This version requires Firefox 10.0 ESR (Windows download).
  3. Oracle Application Testing Suite Downloads
  4. Oracle Application Testing Suite 12.x: Oracle Load Testing Overview
  5. OATS: Tie All Processes Together — from OpenScript to Scenario (Xml and More)